Brandy/ Bio

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Evolutions

Progression of man--from apes to humans

Progression of man--from apes to humans/ and with increasing rise of technology it might soon be possible for the human body to be made of mechanical parts

Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations.

 The theory of evolution of man is that humans were derive from an apelike ancestor that lived on earth a few million years ago. Studies show that apes skeletons are very similar to humans. This could be because of environmental changes which lead to natural selection (is the process by which favorable heritable traits become more common in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms). Each time the environment changes the organism (apes) would have to evolve to keep living. Charles Darwin who is the author of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, (6th edition of 1872 the title was changed to The Origin of Species.) Darwin did research of the subject by traveling around the world for five years. He said the evolution was due to natural selection but some people found him and his book to be controversial because it contradicted religious beliefs. But his theory has not been total shot down. There are many concepts of Evolution but natural selection to me is the best example. and this does not only happen for humans and apes, this is the same for all living things. Example the world way before we were alive was said to be very hot but eventually the ozone changed and it started to cool down, that’s why there is ice in Alaska. If the earth use to be hot the there wouldn’t be lots of organisms living in fur, but  when temps changed the organisms in the cold area had to adapt to survive i.e. fur.

Sources:

Biology Song

Mitosis Rap

Joey Benson has a Malignant tumor– (is a cancer cell that invaded the surrounding tissue and can spread through out your body). His doctor want to give him Vincristine- it is an Anti-Cancer medicine -( keeps spindle fibers from forming and helping the cell reproduce) as the rappers stated. Then they go on to explain what Mitosis – (process in which cells duplicate) and its processes are. But they do not go into detail so you dont under the rest. So allow me to explain.

The first stage in which they skipped is:

Interphase- Your DNA at this stage starts to replicate and condense

Then mitosis takes place in the following stages:

Prophase– The cells nuclear memberane breaks down and spindles begin to form where as the rapper says, “the spindles are pulling chromosomes apart unitil their STRAIGHT UP TORN”

Metaphase– This is where the chromosomes inside the cell begin to line up along the equator of the cell and centromeres replicate

Anaphase– The sister chromatids are then pulled apart to each side of the the cell to the spindles by the spindle fibers and the cell plate begins to form as well

Telophase-The nuclear envelope comes back and the chromosomes decondense and then the cell start to split apart forming two duplicated cells.

Then the rapper continues to explain and say that Joey is showing “Cellular Cleavage” so shame on him.

But the rapper is WRONG. If Joey was a dog then maybe he would be showing “Cellular Cleavage,”-(is where the cell begin to split as if a string was tied around it and pulling it in half) but since he is clearly a human its not possible. During mitosis for human a “Cell Plate“-( a plate that develops between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that is involved in forming the wall between the two new daughter cells) forms.

They just wanted to say cleavage because they are guys and its a doctor skit. And the rapper isnt always wrong. He says, “after that your left with two identical cells” and that is the god honest truth.

The doctor then says he want to put Joey on Mitomycin C- ( make the DNA stick together so it can not be pulled apart creating new cells). Then he explains what the S-stage is-(Its the cells normal activity period where DNA replicates). And since the Mitomycin C messes with DNA it helps stop the parts of the S-stage, STOPPING MITOSIS.

Genetics

One in a million twins

One in a million twins

 

On July 23, 2006 Kerry Richardson gave birth to premature twin boys Kaydon and Layton Richardson. Kerry says her twin boys were, “practically the same color.” But over some time the twins have started to difference from each other in a unsuspected way. Kaydon(on the left) is black (darker) like Kerry, while Layton(on the right) is a lot lighter like his father who is white. Another fact to the story is that Kerry is mixed with black and white just like her twins. Scientist believe this is a one-in-a-million chance. Clinical geneticist Dr. Stephen Withers said, “the likelihood of a mixed-race woman having eggs predominantly for one skin color was rare enough, let alone releasing two of them simultaneously and producing twins.”

http://www.amren.com/mtnews/archives/2006/10/infant_twins_ha.php, American Renaissance

twins of different colors

twins of different colors

 

A mother of Jamacian-English descent and a father of German descent gave birth to twins who are different colors on may 2006. Their mother says, “When they were born you could see a color difference right away.” Alicia (on the left) has brown eyes, black hair, and her skin is dark, while her sister Jasmin ( on the right) has blue eyes, whitish hair, and her skin is white. The Sunday telegraph calls this a “million-to-one medical miracle.” They are siblings who were born at the same time, but they are not identical because the came from two different fertilized eggs. Because their mother is mixed and their father is white make it likely for them to inherit a mixture of genes that determine skin color. They have a five year old sister, Taylah who has blue eyes, blonde hair, and has olive colored skin.

Both stories can be explain by Hsien Lei,PhD. Explained through the process of meiosis. Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.(www.wikipedia.com) When eggs develop in a mother they get a random selection of genes and each set of chromosomes are unique. Genetic expert say mixed race woman have a mixture for black and white genes. It rare that a egg would get have a predominate skin color.

http://www.geneticsandhealth.com/2006/10/21/twins-with-different-skin-color-genes/

Hsien Hsien Lei, PhD on October 21st, 2006 

These are both amazing cases and could be explained through meiosis but not all twins will look alike anyways. And i also think it possible that they twins might have came from the same egg but it was not exactly together so it like “confused” its self and took on different traits. 

 

 

Short Breed Dogs

(Pomeranian)

(Pomeranian)

Why are pomeranians breed the way they are? I want to know if its for special reasons or is that the way they were created at the begining.

Answer: The Pomeranian originated from the sled dogs of Greenland and Lapland, which were eventually brought into Europe in Pomerania. Breeders in Pomerania improved the coat and bred the dogs down for city living, but they were still 20 pounds or more when they reached England.

English breeders, through trial and error and Mendelean theories, are credited for reducing the dog’s size and developing the many colors. The Pomeranian of today is small due to selective breeding, but the breed still retains the hardy disposition and thick coat typical of dogs in cold climates.  (wikipedia.com)

Mendelean Theory: Gregor Johann Mendel-“father of modern genetics”= Mendel did experiments with pea plant and his study showed that one in four pea plants had purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were  hybrids and one out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments later became known as Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. And other scientist using his theory were able to manipulate animal genes. Like the pomeranian. (wikipedia.com)

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